Usage

Installation

To use perceval, you can directly install the pip wheel in a virtual environment:

(.venv) $ pip install perceval-quandela

Alternatively, if you are interested in contributing to the project - you can clone the project from github:

(.venv) $ git clone https://github.com/quandela/Perceval
(.venv) $ cd Perceval
(.venv) $ python setup.py install # or develop for developers

At this point you can directly use Perceval. For following the tutorial below, we do recommend running it in a jupyter notebook, or in the Python console of your favorite IDE (Spyder, Pycharm) but you can also run it in a terminal python console.

First Circuit

Import the library and the components from symb library:

>>> import perceval as pcvl
>>> import perceval.lib.symb as symb

Defines a circuit as a simple beam-splitter, it is a 2-mode circuit

>>> c = symb.BS()
>>> c.m
2
>>> pcvl.pdisplay(c)

Tip

The outcome of this last command will depend on your environment - see Visualization.

Text Console

Jupyter Notebook

Within IDE (Pycharm, Spyder)

_images/terminal-screenshot.png _images/jupyter-notebook.png _images/ide-screenshot.png

Check the definition of the circuit, and the values of these parameters:

>>> pcvl.pdisplay(c.definition())
⎡cos(theta)               I*exp(-I*phi)*sin(theta)⎤
⎣I*exp(I*phi)*sin(theta)  cos(theta)              ⎦
>>> c.get_parameters(all_params=True)
[Parameter(name='phi', value=0, min=0, max=2*pi), Parameter(name='theta', value=pi/4, min=0, max=2*pi)]

Display the unitary matrix for these fixed parameters, and check it is unitary:

>>> pcvl.pdisplay(c.U)
⎡sqrt(2)/2    sqrt(2)*I/2⎤
⎣sqrt(2)*I/2  sqrt(2)/2  ⎦
>>> c.U.is_unitary()
True

Let us decide to send one photon on the lower left branch of the beam splitter. It is corresponding to the following input state:

>>> input_state = pcvl.BasicState("|0,1>")
>>> input_state.n
1

Define a simulator for the circuit:

>>> backend = pcvl.BackendFactory().get_backend()
>>> simulator = backend(c)

Get the output state of the circuit for this input_state:

>>> print(simulator.evolve(input_state))
sqrt(2)*I/2*|1,0>+sqrt(2)/2*|0,1>

Sample some output states:

>>> for _ in range(10):
...    print(simulator.sample(pcvl.BasicState("|0,1>")))
...
|0,1>
|0,1>
|0,1>
|1,0>
|1,0>
|0,1>
|0,1>
|0,1>
|0,1>
|0,1>

Get the actual probability associated to each output state:

>>> pcvl.pdisplay(simulator.prob(input_state, pcvl.BasicState("|0,1>")))
1/2
>>> pcvl.pdisplay(simulator.prob(input_state, pcvl.BasicState("|1,0>")))
1/2
>>> pcvl.pdisplay(simulator.prob(input_state, pcvl.BasicState("|1,1>")))
0

Get the full probability distribution:

>>> ca = pcvl.CircuitAnalyser(simulator,
...                           [pcvl.BasicState([0, 1]), pcvl.BasicState([1, 0]), pcvl.BasicState([1, 1])], # the input states
...                           "*" # all possible output states that can be generated with 1 or 2 photons
...                          )
>>> pcvl.pdisplay(ca)
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|       | |1,0> | |0,1> | |2,0> | |1,1> | |0,2> |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
| |0,1> |  1/2  |  1/2  |   0   |   0   |   0   |
| |1,0> |  1/2  |  1/2  |   0   |   0   |   0   |
| |1,1> |   0   |   0   |  1/2  |   0   |  1/2  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

Congratulations, you have achieved this first tutorial! You can now continue with the documentation through Circuits, Computing Backends, States, Polarization or you will go through more advanced examples in the Examples section starting with Perceval Detailed Walkthrough.